. . . pause or gap in a sequence, series, or process, pause, break, interval, interruption, suspension, intermission, interlude, gap, lacuna, lull, respite, breathing space, time out, recess . . .
I really do like studies. Even the ones where we think there are obvious conclusions, as if we didn’t need any documentation.
“Everybody knows that!”
But us humans do like to research. To authenticate, substantiate, certify, justify, confirm, establish, corroborate, prove, support, validate. Whatever word you want to use.
We like confirmation and quantification.
So, while I’m not overly surprised, I do find it intriguing that the research bears out that modern medicine has very little to do with our overall health – only about ten to twenty percent at best. A full eighty percent or more is determined by our relationships. At least that is what a seventy-five-year study conducted by the Harvard Medical School concluded.
I was on a pretty good writing streak for the last half of October and into November, but Thanksgiving this year has brought some new challenges and disruptions and we’ll see where the Universe is going to take me now. Still plenty to be thankful for.
So, what’s the new chaos??
And I suppose you could call this Part 9 of my series on marriage and divorce, because separating from my last wife is what placed me in the environment that spawned the challenges I now face. A product of many factors, but economics was one of the primary triggers.
Not that I couldn’t survive monetarily, but the loss of assets lead me to the house I would end up in, and that would lead me to a different type of deterioration.
For being a totally artificial construct, time certainly can beguile us.
Lead us into a false sense of security when there seems to be plenty of “time-to-spare.” Yet place us in a state of sheer panic if time has “escaped us.” Particularly for workplace deadlines. Or when we’re dashing across the airport terminal trying to catch that connecting flight. Or maybe when we’re counting the seconds between the contractions a mother endures during childbirth.
A new life blooms that will soon be “ticking away” the hours.
It’s that time of year again. The days are growing shorter, the weather colder. Too cold for the moment.
It seems winter’s breath has arrived early this year.
Time when we’re forced indoors. To hibernate. Or cook stews, perhaps.
This is also the time of year when I start thinking about getting off my ass and finishing that book I started many years ago.
A stew of its own . . .
I had grown a bit weary of my current job in the legal profession, so I thought I’d back track and check out the market in nursing. After all, all of my colleagues had remarked, at one time or another, that I always had my first career to fall back on.
And, I was excited because I found a job where I thought I could put both my nursing and legal expertise to work as the director of nursing for a long-term care facility. The hiring manager was even more so excited when he reviewed my resume. It was the fastest phone call I ever received in response to an online job application.
My interview was set for just a few days away, but by the time I arrived at the facility, something drastic had changed in the way I was treated and by the demeanor of everyone I encountered in the building. I was shuffled off to a dark conference room and told to wait.
Disclaimer: Beware – today I dive into a more technical piece of work versus my more poetic stuff 🙂
I always love it when new terms of art are coined. The coupling of words and formation of short phrases to describe something, a concept, possibly already known or possibly a new formulation. It seems to be the perpetual motion of researchers, politicians, and wordsmiths alike, to boil a concept down into a few short syllables to describe something of monumental proportions.
Well once the label or buzzword or soundbite is created, no one has any need to reference the material supporting it, or even read and digest it for that matter. It sort of becomes a “given.” It is a self-explanatory definition that generally becomes universally accepted.
It is the same philosophy journalists use when they try to tell the whole story in just the headline. Reading the story becomes superfluous, and with lowering attention spans many readers don’t make it past those headlines.
You might even compare this practice to that of our ancient ancestors drawing pictograms and petroglyphs on cave walls. Reducing an idea to its most elementary form in an attempt to communicate.
Actually, I think images may even be more powerful than words in the sense that they convey detail that encompasses all of the senses that can cross language barriers. Some days, I would prefer petroglyphs to the written and spoken language 😊
But, should simple or even complex phraseology be given such deference?
I’m not sure. Such practices have the potential to oversimplify. And in the case of journalists, many times their stories don’t match their headlines – not even close.
So where am I going with this? Well, I stumbled upon a new term this week involving our aging brains. “Neurocognitive Scaffolding.”
We all misplace things from time-to-time. Car keys, your cell phone, a pair of glasses, a pen. Perhaps a favorite shirt. Of course, there is also the void. A vortex. That place where a single sock or the lids to our plastic containers seem to just vanish. To be swallowed up. Leaving behind the sad, unmatched partner, only to be discarded at a future date.
Their usefulness now lost . . .
And sometimes I think the spirits are messing with me. Because I search and search, retrace my steps, look in the same place multiple times, and there it is, my quarry, sitting in one of the same spots I’ve searched three times over. Only now it’s so obvious I can’t miss it if I tried.
I wonder ???
Over the years, I’ve tried to keep a copy of everything I’ve had published. It’s nice to have an electronic copy, but even better to have a hard copy. Something tangible. Something I can hold in my hands. Feel the texture of the paper. Smell the ink. Visualize the word placement. Hear the words as I read through them.
There’s something about the whole sensory experience that makes it more magical.
It was a colder winter than usual in northern Arizona back in ‘78. When my brother and I pulled into Flagstaff there was no way to make a left-hand turn. Some three feet of snow had been plowed into the middle of the roads to be trucked away later. A crystalline white bulwark separating the oncoming traffic.
We had a few more miles to go to find a campsite among the Ponderosa Pines. Once there, I eased the ‘70 Plymouth Satellite off the park road where the snow was the lightest and drove deeper into the forest. The snow being an incredible insulator, as soon as I shut the engine off it was dead quiet.
The beauty surrounding us was as breathtaking as the air was frigid.
In the distance, the towering San Francisco Peaks were covered in clouds. It looked like they were tethered to the mountains with the surrounding sky perfectly clear and blue. When those clouds cleared there would be an additional layer of snow on those holy Peaks.
Respect Mother Earth and the native traditions and you’ll live longer in this wilderness.
I paused for a few moments to take in the panorama. Absolutely beautiful.
I was sitting on top of a mountain pass looking down through the outstretching valley below. Mountain ridges rose parabolically, expanding outward and then opening up to a gorgeous vista. More mountains in the distance shrouded in a light bluish haze. The product of wind-blown dust and the sun’s rays bending around all of those tiny particles. Photons bouncing through a prism, the colors and shadows changing constantly with Sol’s rotation.
The undulating hills bore the tracks of water courses, washes that were bone-dry now but would rapidly fill in the monsoon rains. Rains that would carve. The softness of water overpowering the hardness of basalt, granite, and rhyolite. Like a sculptor of the landscape etching images that can best be scene from this bird’s-eye view.
Volcanic remains from a once violent explosion. The center of the caldera sinking as millions of tons of smoke, ash, and debris filled the sky, blotting out the sun until the jet stream cleared the airways. Once molten rock now overgrown with sagebrush, Mexican feather grass, manzanita, brittle brush, turpentine brush, prickly pears, mesquite, pinyon pine, alligator juniper, and scrub oak.
A light, warm wind blows as black hawks sore at dazzling heights – eye-level now that I’m at the peak. I speak to them and offer thanks for their company. A roadrunner scurries across the path in front of me carrying a freshly caught spiny lizard. Life. Predator and prey. A continuous cycle.
There’s no other human soul around me and I’m basking in eternal peace. Yet there is another battle silently raging in the recesses of my mind and body. Ever pressing its way into the forefront of my consciousness. An insidious illness that many doctors refuse to acknowledge even though some seven million Americans are afflicted. Symptoms growing from minute exposures. Triggering a cascade of molecular hysteria. The body unable to compensate.
I found myself rapidly getting dizzy. My brain was becoming foggy and then the headache came. I noticed my heart beat was irregular, sometimes slowing down, and other times speeding up. Skipping beats. And there was the abdominal pain and nausea. It was difficult to navigate to find a place to rest. My voice cracked, became hoarse, it was difficult to speak. There was short-term memory loss, the immediate short-term, making small instant decisions difficult.
You might think I had been poisoned. Inhaled some insecticide by accident. Perhaps a farmer spraying crops in the distance.
Or maybe I could have spilled some rat poison or gasoline on my hands. Drank some polluted water. Walked through the thick smoke of a brush fire. Breathed paint fumes in a freshly painted house or from a recently stain deck. Or maybe it was formaldehyde or ethylene. Gassing-off of furniture or from the upholstery and plastic dashboard of the car.
All of these factors, and more, can be triggers. But all I had done was get dressed.
You see, clothing manufactures are spraying all types of noxious chemicals on clothes now. To make them last longer, wear better, not catch on fire, and not smell when we sweat. Or to kill bugs when they’re shipped. No different than the farmer spraying the crops.
Then there are the chemical detergents the clothes were washed in. Or the washing machine and dryer themselves. Now contaminated with chemical residues from past loads.
Chemicals that are truly poisonous, but which most people, at least for the moment, can tolerate in small amounts. Some of us aren’t so fortunate. Our bodies have become overwhelmed by all the toxins and we can’t clear our systems of them any longer. Smaller amounts begin producing bigger reactions all the time. It’s called toxicant-induced loss of intolerance.
And there’s no escape.
It began with a reaction to chemicals used to tan and waterproof leather. A new pair of hiking boots. And then exploded to any clothing, soaps and detergents, sunscreens, shaving creams, etc. Anything that may contain any type of rubber accelerator, biocidic agent, or chromate. Foods, now saturated with pesticides and herbicides and preservatives, can trigger it. Molds, that produce endotoxins that gas-off or are carried by their microscopic spores, once inhaled, can debilitate.
This condition goes by various names. Multiple chemical sensitivity, environmental illness, sick building syndrome, idiopathic environmental intolerance, ecologic illness, total allergy syndrome, and the 20th Century disease. In terms of our military veterans, this can manifest as Gulf War Syndrome or Agent Orange disability.
One of the hindrances for doctors accepting the existence of the disease is their disagreement on how to define and name it. It also doesn’t quite fit the traditional allergen-antibody reaction. Instead of having hives, or a runny nose, watering eyes and difficulty breathing, the reaction is nuerotoxic, like a poisoning.
Despite the AMA’s denial, there is so much information about this disease and its various manifestations that I won’t attempt to try to cover it all. Treatment is extremely limited and primarily consists of avoidance and boosting the body’s natural ability to detoxify. Kind of hard to avoid clothing 🙂
Some medications can lessen symptoms but there is no treatment to my knowledge that is getting to the root cause – an increasingly toxic planet caused by human occupation and alleged progress.
If you find this concept hard to wrap your mind around consider this, there are some 85,000 chemical compounds licensed by the FDA for commercial use in America. And very few have been tested for safety. The umbilical cord blood of infants in this country, just prior to their birth, before they have even taken their first breath, test positive for up to 287 industrial chemicals with an average of 200 per baby. These chemicals include: polyaromatic hydrocarbons, dioxins, furans, pesticides, flame retardants, industrial lubricants, plastics, consumer product ingredients, wastes from burning coal, gasoline and garbage, lead, mercury, methylmercury, perfluorochemicals (PFCs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), to name but a few.
So, as I hike through this paradise of nature my mind grows cloudy and my body becomes weary. A contrast of pristine beauty flooding my senses with intoxicating images, forms and scents. A vision that is totally energizing and invigorating, while the body betrays and is overwhelmed with fatigue. Predator and prey . . . the continuing cycle that none of us can escape. But perhaps our predator has become ourselves.
Postscript: Sometimes I believe that the Source strips away many of the material distractions in our lives to get us to focus on spiritual development. You are compelled to pay attention to those matters of soul growth. Our mission in life is not to work and pay bills and engage in immediate sense gratification. There is so much more about getting to and experiencing our true essence. I believe that this is one of those times.
Photo: Sitting on top of a mountain in the southwestern desert, gazing though the valley formed by an old volcanic caldera.
Language for “Chapter 7” in the title: I know you’ve all noticed that I’ve been using different languages in the titles of these chapters I’ve themed as “Contrasts.” Today’s choice was Amharic the Semitic language descended from Ge’ez that is the official language of Ethiopia. I enjoy marveling at different languages as I explained in my post “Like.”
Prior Chapters of Contrasts:
Link Rot: As always, I cannot predict how long a hyperlink on the Net will hang around. They tend to disappear over time or be hijacked to other sites, but they were current at the time I referenced them.
A faint sound pierced the cloudy haze. An echo through a long corridor.
Darkness, but light sort of on the periphery. A greenish glow that grew brighter at regular intervals. I wasn’t quite sure what it was. I didn’t know where I was.
I smell antiseptics. Hear voices growing louder. Shouting!!
Sort of floating. I wasn’t walking. I was being dragged. My legs outstretched behind me. Feet limp. I had no control of them. There was pressure under both of my arms. I slowly opened my eyes and recognized the green tile floors and walls. I was in the emergency room at the air base hospital.
Two airmen in uniform each had an arm under one of mine as we burst through the double swinging doors into the treatment area.
I heard the doctor asking what was going on and one of the airmen yelled, “He passed out in the waiting room!”
The familiar face of the doctor said, “Oh, he’s ok, he just needs some rest.”
The airman protested, “Well, he doesn’t look so good me. We picked him up off the floor out there.”
Doctor, “I gave him some medicine. That’s to be expected.”
The next voice I heard was my mother’s frantically asking what was happening. She had gone out to the parking lot to bring the car up to the door.
After we were all dismissed by the doctor, the airmen carried me to the car and put me in the back seat. A fog enveloped me and I was out.
I woke up eight hours later in my bed at home. I struggled for breath, coughed, stumbled to the floor and called out for my parents. I was a nice shade of purple. Cyanosis. Not enough oxygen. Thirty minutes later I as back in the ER, only this time I was being given epinephrine.
My heart rate picked up. Lungs cleared. I could breath after getting the third dose of .3cc. They followed that with a shot of susphrine, a long-acting form of epinephrine.
These were the meds I should have received on my first visit to the ER, standard treatment for an asthma attack at that time. But I had unluckily come in when a certain doctor was on duty. One that believed asthma was a mental illness so he had given me a shot of 50 mg of thorazine, a powerful antipsychotic medication. A big dose for a 50-pound kid. And this was exactly the wrong medication to give to a person in respiratory distress because it depresses respirations further. I would learn later that it was amazing I even woke up after that.
It was time to package me off to home again. But I’d be back.
1965. This was a rough year. Almost 80 trips to the ER – that was one to three times a week, depending on the week. I knew all of the ER staff by name. The medical knowledge was limited and the treatments were primitive. I used to say that if the disease doesn’t kill you, the medicine will.
There were so many things the docs didn’t know or understand about the disease back then. And they were not of the mindset to listen to their patients either. Especially a child patient. No, these docs were educated old-school that they were the keepers of all of the knowledge. It was a dictatorial approach, not a collaborative one.
A couple of very simple things really threw these guys off balance. If I had been in respiratory distress for a while and finally got relief from the epi, I would go to sleep. My body was totally exhausted from having struggled so hard to breathe. You use all of your chest muscles fighting to inhale and you can’t seem to be able to exhale. It’s like lifting weights and running at the same time while you’re really just lying in bed.
They didn’t get it. Epinephrine doesn’t only dilate your bronchioles, it really kicks up your heart rate. It’s a stimulant so they expected you to be bouncing off the walls after getting a shot. More than once, I woke up on an ER gurney being slapped around by doctor screaming “WAKE UP” after the epi finally broke the attack. A look of panic and fear filled their faces.
Another thing they couldn’t grasp was what absence of wheezing meant. Wheezing, or air whistling through a constricted airway, was a hallmark symptom of an asthma attack. But you reach a point where your airway is so constricted that you can’t exchange enough air to produce a wheeze. The docs know now that this is an ominous sign. You’re near death. But back in the day, if they didn’t hear a wheeze, they’d send you home and try to tell you that you weren’t having trouble breathing.
They could have drawn arterial blood gases to measure the oxygen content of your blood, but even that was a new technology at the time, people weren’t skilled with drawing blood from arteries, and most hospitals didn’t have the equipment to analyze such a blood sample.
Now they have pulse oximeters that give you an instantaneous oxygen saturation reading. Just clip it on your finger and it compares infrared to red wavelengths of light to tell you how much oxygen is in your blood. I even have my own at home. If they had had those then, I’m sure they would have been shocked to see how low your oxygen sat was.
In those days, it was sort of off-the-cuff, hit-or-miss treatment. So, I was frequently misdiagnosed, given the wrong medication, or overdosed on the right medication. You name it. You could die with or without the treatment. Take your pick.
An upper respiratory infection could quickly turn to pneumonia, trigger the asthma, and I’d be spending the week in the hospital. A scary place for a little kid. Once, when I as in an oxygen tent, a technician walked into the room smoking a cigarette. Hospitals weren’t smoke-free then. Patients and staff smoked all the time.
Of course, oxygen is not explosive, but it will rapidly feed a fire. You don’t bring fire, in any form, near an oxygen tank or tent or mask. That’s just asking for trouble. Not to mention that cigarette smoke can cause an asthma attack. Stupid. Even as a little kid I knew better.
For maintenance treatment, they prescribed theophylline-based drugs. I would use a liquid form of this to swallow the other pills ordered. But theophylline wasn’t cutting it, and good inhalant meds didn’t exist yet. So when an allergy specialist rotated into that hospital, he started me on steroids.
It took high daily doses of prednisone to bring my asthma under control, and the docs weren’t aware of the long-term side effects. They controlled the asthma but they stunted my growth. Big time. A bone age study when I was thirteen put my bones at an eight-year-old developmental level.
The docs told me I’d never get off the steroids, but I weaned myself off and proudly handed a bottle full of pills back to the doctor. I thought he’d be happy. Instead he berated me, “I can’t be your mother and make sure you take your medication!”
Once off those meds, I grew a foot in height in just one year and normalized my weight a bit. I never approached my father’s or my brother’s heights, but hey, there are advantages to being short 🙂
While I had gotten off the steroids, and as time progressed, the docs kept increasing the dosage of theophylline and added terbutaline, another bronchodilator. On these meds, my resting heart rate was 120 beats per minute and my hands would shake so violently that I couldn’t even write my own name. So the wise doctors added three doses of valium a day to take the edge off. What a mix.
I could tell you a lot of crazy near-death stories from back then, but it might get boring after a while and I don’t want you think I’m whining or feeling sorry for myself. I’m not. It’s all just experience. I have a great appreciation for life.
And it’s important to realize that healthcare practitioners aren’t gods. They don’t know it all. You need to be an active participant in your own healthcare.
I will end with another brief tale, though. When inhalant drugs were first introduced, there were no hand-held, pocket-sized devices. You had to own an air compressor and hook that to a plastic or glass nebulizer attachment, mix the solutions for the nebulizer, and then fire up the machine and breath in the mist.
One of the first inhalant meds they tried in the early 60s was Isoproterenol (Isoprel). (An incredibly potent heart medication I would be administering to my patients in the ICU as a critical care nurse years later.) But the cardiac effects were way too strong and they were giving little kids heart attacks. I remember two different times showing up for the allergy clinic where we got our twice-weekly allergy shots only to find a face missing from the group.
Two kids I knew died from this medication at an age when I really didn’t have a full concept of what death was yet. I just knew I never saw them again . . .
Postscript: The inhalant drugs would continue their evolution through Isoetharine (Bronkosol), to Metaproterenol (Alupent), to Salbutamol (Albuterol or Ventolin), and with the addition of Beclometasone (Vanceril or Q-Var), a steroid inhaler, things really improved. My condition stabilized in 1982 with the addition of Beclometasone, and that was the last year, so far, that I’ve been hospitalized with asthma being the cause. Of course, now we’ve gone even generations further and have such products as Fluticason (Flovent), a long-acting steroid, and Formoterol (Foradil), a long-acting beta-2 agonist that targets the lung more and the heart less. Progress.
Photo: The big skies of Montana. No better representation for the air we breathe. The oxygen we crave. The ease of living.
I picked up a fun book tracing a historical perspective on the advancement of medicine, and it naturally included a section about the Hippocratic Oath (400 B.C.). Hippocrates was the ancient Greek physician credited as being the father of Western Medicine. He is famous for dismissing beliefs, more ancient than he was, that advocated the supernatural origin of disease.
The oath, which has frequently been summed up as “first do no harm” is actually quite lengthy. It has been modified multiple times over the centuries and, as it turns out, was not, most probably, written by Hippocrates.
Another irony is that, while Hippocrates disavowed supernatural origins of disease, the original oath translated from Greek, begins by invoking supernatural beings: “I swear by Apollo the Healer, by Asclepius [God of Medicine], by Hygieia [Goddess of health and cleanliness], by Panacea [Goddess of remedies], and by all the gods and goddesses, making them my witnesses, that I will carry out, according to my ability and judgment, this oath and this indenture.”
The Hippocratic Corpus is a collection of texts associated with Hippocrates’ teachings, only part of which was authored by Hippocrates. And perhaps in another irony, the Paneth Codex, another medical text that was completed long after Hippocrates had passed, contains some of his writings while using depictions of demons as metaphors for disease.
It seems that it was hard for even the most objective early practitioners of medicine to fully eliminate the supernatural from the corners of their medicine cabinets. And maybe for good reason. For the supernatural, once identified and defined, can become quite natural.
So just what is the supernatural and what is natural or normal when it comes to defining illness?
My background and careers are largely based upon science and logical reasoning. Yet, I’m still willing to keep an open mind and recognize that science and human genius can’t always explain things. As most people would attest, we’ve seen or experienced things that simply don’t fit neatly into the boxes and shelves of the “normal.”
To say it differently, I believe in the metaphysical realm. I also believe in mind-body connections and what’s happening in the mind can find ways of manifesting itself in the body.
While I was working at a major research hospital, the doctors and nurses frequently described and linked personality types with specific diseases. And not always in the most positive terms. A more neutral example might be that “Type A” personalities were more likely to have heart attacks than “Type B” personalities.
Which brings me to today’s pondering.
Is every so called “unnatural” or “abnormal” condition truly an “illness?” What’s the interplay between mental and physical illness?” And what if instead of an illness that required treatment, people were really, in some instances, going through an evolution that should be allowed to progress?
And I guess before I dive in too deeply here, I should clarify that I’m not a mental health professional, nor am I a medical doctor. If you’re needing a medical opinion, consult your primary care physician, and if you wish to learn more about mental health from a real professional, check out the site of my blogging friend Dr. Perry.
That disclaimer aside, most illnesses would fall outside the definition of normal and some seem relatively simple to diagnose and identify their causes. Some are genetically related and some follow the pathogen-induced pathway. Sounds simple, you’re born with the genetic makeup that can be expressed as a physical ailment or you encounter a virus or bacterium and you contract a disease.
But many people have “bad genes” or have close encounters with pathogens and they don’t become ill. Why? They are usually said to have healthier immune systems. What makes a healthy immune system? Besides good nutrition and exercise there are plenty of correlations to good mental health, positive thinking, and being happy to having a healthy immune system and healthy body.
The idea of illness originating in the mind, or from a body being out of balance might coincide more with some Eastern medical practices, while germ theory most follows Western medicine. Although I will give Western medicine credit for having researched some things like meditation and meridians and finding scientific bases to support traditional Eastern or more holistic approaches to treatment. And many Western pharmaceutical treatments come directly from old-fashioned herbal remedies from the Shamans of old.
So if one is encountering an illness, or deviation from normal physical or mental health, something not occurring naturally, then, despite Hippocrates’ claims, could there be a “supernatural” cause, and just what would that mean?
The definition of “supernatural” doesn’t only include references to spiritual entities, but it more basically means transcending the laws of nature or being attributable to an invisible agent. So, before the advent of the microscope, a simple bacterium or a virus would not have been visible in the observable universe and an illness caused by such would have been a supernatural occurrence. Consequently, depending on the limits of scientific measurement at any point in time, many causes of diseases could, by simple definition, be supernaturally caused.
And when referring to the supernatural, does it have to be an external source? What about the person’s own spirit? Can’t a damaged soul be expressed as a physical ailment?
Or maybe an enlightened soul is causing a physical evolution?
My daughter sent me an interesting article the other day called, “Shamans Believe Mental Illness Is Something Else Entirely.” The article focused on a West African Shaman of the Dagara people who proposes that some mental ailments, like depression and schizophrenia may actually be a step towards transformation – even meaning the birth of a healer.
The Dagara believe that some of what we in the West call mental illness is really what happens when people encounter, and don’t how to deal with, psychic phenomena and the spiritual world. In their tradition, these individuals are seen as a bridge between physical and spiritual worlds.
This Shaman is said to have taken an 18-year-old suffering from hallucinations and depression back to his village. After 8 months of healing rituals this person was acting quite “normal” and returned to U.S. society to earn a degree in Psychology at Harvard.
While this may be an isolated example, it’s an amazing concept to contemplate. And I’m not saying that such non-traditional approaches would be a panacea for mental health treatments. I’m just saying there is still more unknown than there is known.
Given our acculturation, if we were undergoing a positive physical, mental, or spiritual transition we might very well be totally confused as to what was happening and think we were ill. Our doctors might be unable to come up with a definitive diagnosis and resort to traditional treatments or try to repress the evolution. You might be labeled as being mentally ill, which could, in turn, send you down medical corridors forever obscuring the inner butterfly emerging from the cocoon.
As more advances are made, and as more ways to measure the currently unmeasurable become available, finer distinctions may emerge as to what constitutes good or “normal” health. For the supernatural may be commonplace and just another source for healthy growth and development.
Photo: The book I picked up is titled: “The Medical Book” and it was written by Clifford A. Pickover. This picture is a portion of a photo used in the book and comes from the Paneth Codex, completed in Bologna in 1326 A.D. The book begins in the time frame of 10,000 B.C. moving through medical advances until 2008. Medicine, indeed, has come a long way from bloodletting starting in 1500 B.C., and I believe it still has a long way to go.
I can personally attest to the advances made in the treatment of asthma since the 1960s when many doctors believed that asthma was a mental illness. I had many a scary trip to the emergency room as a child, and when in full respiratory distress was even administered Thorazine, an antipsychotic medication, and knocked unconscious. Oh, the many things we’ve been fortunate enough to survive:-)
Hypocrite: I feel compelled to mention that the word “hypocrite” does not originate from “Hippocrates,” even though it sort of sounds like it does. Hypocrite comes from the Greek word hypokrites, meaning “an actor,” and translating more literally to “an interpreter from underneath” because actors at the time traditionally wore masks. Figuratively, it meant someone who wears a mask to pretend to be someone they are not. In early religious texts, its appears as “ypocrite” referring to those acting like they are morally good to deceive others. Today, of course, we accept the meaning that it’s a person acting contrary to their stated beliefs. In a loose sense, that could apply to Hippocrates – denouncing supernatural causes of disease while swearing to supernatural beings to practice good medicine 🙂
Update December 1, 2018: I stumbled upon another article today about this same subject and the Dagara. “A Mental Disease by Any Other Name.”
Link Rot Warning: No one can guarantee how long a link on the Net will last. The US Supreme Court got into trouble over this. One of the judges quoted from an Internet site, but after a couple of months the site was no longer there for reference. I also once went to check out a link promoted on our local TV weather channel only to discover it had been hijacked by a porn site – Yikes!
If you haven’t Googled yourself or your blog’s title in a while, you might just want to. It’s fun. I mean, I think all of us who are writing want exposure and want to develop a following, but you might be surprised to see what’s out there.
There has always been that ominous warning that once something is put out there on the Net, it’s out there forever. Like it or not. But that seems like a warning more appropriate for those crazy pictures people are inclined to put on their not-so-private Facebook pages. Beware future employers 🙂
All things and words can fade with time. Right?
You might want to rethink that before you put your next rant out there for the world to see.
When I was writing for newspapers and magazines in the 90’s, and then later blogging in the early 2000s, it seemed like my articles were perpetually floating around. Now, those have virtually disappeared. With a few interesting exceptions.
You see, other folks out there might snap up your writing up and use it for a purpose you never imagined. Or, in one instance, I even received an “award,” or recognition, I never knew about until years later.
In 1997, I authored a couple of editorials on vaccines. Mind you, I’m not against vaccines. All mine are up to date. But I do believe people should retain their choice on whether they wish to have foreign chemical substances injected into their bodies. Especially when toxic chemicals are added as preservatives. And especially when those substances may be contaminated with other substances that you might not want in your body. And especially since diseases can still be transmitted by those who are vaccinated.
I don’t believe in government coerced Kool-Aid.
At any rate, my articles might seem controversial. I didn’t really think so since there was plenty of research to back up the data, and I believed the articles to be balanced in their presentation. Nonetheless, they caused a bit of a stir when they were published. And guess what, after all these years, they’re still floating about on the Internet.
I had published these articles with the Albion Monitor, and they had a great website. Full attribution credit goes to them. Here is their obituary:
R.I.P. Albion Monitor, born August 19, 1995 and passed away at May 5, 2009, at the age of slightly over 5,000 days, having published 13,000 articles, giver take. The corpse will remain on view indefinitely at http://www.albionmonitor.com and is survived by a handful of good on-line news operations, scads of blogs, and ten million tweets.
But, and this is a big BUT, after my articles were published on the Monitor some other webpages used my stories for their own purposes. Purposes I would have never agreed to.
The first article was about contaminated polio vaccine. It turns out I tied in 12th place for Project Censored 1999 Top 25 Censored Stories with this one. You can find references to that here:
And here are a few websites where you can still find my article now:
The second article was about safety issues with the DPT vaccine. And here are a few websites where you can still find either my article or references to it:
http://crazzfiles.com/vaccine-damaged-child-medically-kidnapped-when-parents-refuse-toxic-chemicals-and-choose-organic-foods/ Note: They mistakenly called me a doctor in this one.
The point being, once my articles were out there, I had no editorial control. No one asked me for permission to use them or associate them with whatever their cause might be. And it would not be an easy thing to get those sites to take down my articles. Oh well.
I guess the message is write good content you’ll always be happy with no matter where it might show up 🙂
If any of you have had similar experiences, please feel free to share.
Photo: An image I took of a unique location becomes its negative, or you might say an altered view with repeated printings – just like our stories can become over time 🙂
Note: All web links are subject to link rot.
By-the-way, I’ve been playing “Whack-a-Mole today with WordPress on spacing issues with this piece. Each time I correct a spacing error, another is created, or a corrected line reverts back to an uncorrected state. Or it takes two line spaces to create one. Anybody else have these problems with WordPress?
And here are the articles and their references if anyone wants to read further.
The Forty Year Legacy of Tainted Polio Vaccine
In the late 1940’s and early 1950’s the polio virus was taking a savage toll on the American public. Thousands of children and adults were crippled or killed. In 1955, Jonas Salk performed a medical miracle when he discovered how to mass produce polio vaccine by growing it on the kidneys of rhesus monkeys. While there is no question that thousands were saved from the ravages of polio by the Salk vaccine, by 1960 a problem had surfaced — a problem which would come back to haunt the nation some forty years later.
The complication researchers had isolated in 1960 was a viral contaminate.
It seems that when the live polio virus grown on monkey tissues was extracted for vaccine production another virus was extracted as well, SV-40. When this monkey virus was injected into research animals it produced brain cancer. It appears our government didn’t wish to create a public panic or discredit the public health service, because instead of recalling the tainted vaccines, it quietly ordered the manufacturers to find a monkey free of SV-40 and continue production. As of 1963, the rhesus monkey had been replaced with the African green monkey for production of a safer polio vaccine, but between the years of 1955 and 1963 as many as 98 million Americans had received doses of live polio virus vaccines tainted with SV-40.
Jumping to the early 1990’s, Michele Carbone, Assistant Professor of Pathology at Loyola University in Chicago, isolated fragments of the SV-40 virus in human bone cancers and in a particularly nasty form of lung cancer called mesotheliomas. The viral contaminate from the 50s was back to haunt us, and appeared in 33% of the osteosarcoma bone cancers studied, in 40% of other bone cancers, and in 60% of the mesotheliomas lung cancers. Dr. Carbone believed this study could explain why 50% of the current mesotheliomas being treated were no longer occurring in association with their traditional cause of asbestos exposure.
Already sounding like a bad science fiction story, the worse news was yet to follow. An Italian team of researchers from the Institute of Histology and General Embryology of the University of Ferrara lead by Dr. Fernanda Martini discovered SV-40’s presence in various other tumors.
To be specific they found the monkey virus in 83% of choriod plexus papillomas, in 73% of ependymomas, in 47% of astrocytomas, in 50% of glioblastomas, and in 14% of meningiomas.
While the virus’s appearance in all of these types of brain tumors is mortifying, even more so is the fact that it materialized in 23% of blood samples and 45% of sperm fluids taken from normal individuals — normal meaning free of disease at the time of testing. The researchers determined the virus could be transmitted sexually and through blood transfusions.
As if to drive this point home, SV-40 has appeared in 61% of all new cancer patients — patients too young to have received the contaminated vaccine being administered forty years ago who are now believed to have been infected by human to human transmission. Being a blood born organism, it is also suspected that SV-40 is transmissible from mother to child during pregnancy.
The more this matter is researched the more startling the evidence. Senior epidemiologist at the National Institutes of Health, Dr. Howard Strickler, has plotted a geographic pattern to the cancers associated with SV-40 helping to confirm its link to the tainted vaccine. People who lived in Massachusetts and Illinois who received identified lot numbers of the contaminated vaccine administered in the 1950s are now demonstrating ten times the rate of the osteosarcoma bone tumors as those who received vaccine free of the SV-40 contaminate in other parts of the country.
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) mandates that every American infant and child receive polio vaccinations. While public health officials continue to emphasize how current supplies of the vaccine are safe, Peter Reeve, FDA Virologist, has acknowledged that the administration abandoned independent testing of vaccine purity some fifteen years ago. The job of ensuring safety and purity rests squarely on the shoulders of those manufacturing the vaccines with no federal oversight. Wyeth-Lederle controls the supply of all the oral polio vaccine in this country, and last year’s sales totaled some $230 million dollars. Surely there would be no conflict of interest in allowing this corporation to be the sole agent of quality oversight of their own pocketbook?
The government may not have paid attention to the quality of these vaccines, but they had formulated a plan for their distribution. Federal vaccination policy advocated the use of live-virus oral polio vaccine (OPV) based on the belief the live virus shed in the body fluids of infants immunized with OPV could immunize others through contact exposure. The Centers for Disease Control (CDC) insisted this was a safe practice, and emphasized that no one previously vaccinated could contract the disease in this manner.
The public was never informed of this strategy, however, and no consent was ever obtained from the unknowing participants in this vaccination scheme. One hundred and twenty people, many previously vaccinated, contracted polio as a result of this practice. To add insult to injury in 1994 the World Health Organization proclaimed polio was eliminated from the Western Hemisphere. Insult because for the past seventeen years the only cases of polio occurring in the United States have been caused by the vaccine itself, and injury because this victory will be paid for in blood from the cancers produced by the monkey virus spread with the vaccine.
One might ask just how such a thing could happen considering the injectable form of the vaccine (IPV) does not use a live virus and doesn’t transmit the disease it is designed to shield us from? Well, Wyeth-Lederle’s leading competitor Connaught produces IVP which could explain why Wyeth lobbied so hard against the CDC recommending increased use of IVP. In 1996 the CDC revised its recommendation from four doses of OPV to two doses of IVP followed by two doses of OPV, however, physicians have been instructed to give all four doses as OPV if they desire. The cost of IVP vaccine is $5.40 per dose, whereas OPV costs $2.32 per dose. With the difference in cost favoring the use of OPV, and the current climate of regulating health care costs, clearer guidelines must come from the government if they truly expect to increase the use of the safer IVP vaccine.
Well the story of contaminated polio vaccine is not over yet.
Microbiologist Howard Urnovitz, Ph.D. provided significant evidence at the Eighth Annual Houston Conference on AIDS that human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is a monkey hybrid virus which was produced when 320,000 Africans were injected with polio virus contaminated with live simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) in the late 1950’s. Apparently, viral fragments combine easily with other viruses to produce these hybrids called “chimeras.”
This theory was confirmed by another research team headed by Dr. B. F. Elswood at the University of California in San Francisco. Interestingly enough, when researchers Cecil H. Fox and John Martin applied to the National Institutes of Health for grants to confirm the presence of SIV and simian cyto-megalovirus (SCMV) contaminates in polio vaccines their requests were denied. Dr. Urnovitz may have an explanation as he stated in the Boston Globe, “that almost 100 million Americans were exposed (to SV-40) through a government sponsored program, but for over 30 years, there has been virtually no government effort to see if anyone’s been harmed by the exposure.” He added, “The government will not fund science that makes it look culpable.”
Could it be our government, once again, is attempting to avoid a public panic while ignoring the great potential for harm these viruses could inflict. Time will tell. Harvard Medical School professor, Dr. Ronald Desroier points out that taking all known scientific evidence into account that the medical experts’ knowledge is limited to “perhaps 2% of existing monkey viruses.” Who knows what lethal virus may be discovered in our blood streams forty years from now as a result of good intentions….
Berleur, M. P., & Cordier, S. (1995). The Role of Chemical, Physical, or Viral Exposures and Health Factors in Neurocarcinogenesis: Implications for Epidemiologic Studies of Brain Tumors. Cancer Causes and Control, 6(3), 240-256.
Bookchin, D., & Schumaker, J. (1997). Tainted Polio Vaccine Still Carries Its Threat 40 Years Later. The Boston Globe, January 26.
Carbone, M., et al. (1996). SV-40 Like Sequences in Human Bone Tumors. Oncogene, 13(3), 527-535.
Elswood, B. F., & Stricker, R. B. (1995). Polio Vaccines and the Origin of AIDS. Medical Hypotheses, 42(6), 347-354.
Fisher, B. L. (1997). Workshop on Simian Virus 40: A Possible Human Polyomavirus. National Vaccine Information Center, January 27, On-line at http://www.909shot.com/polio197.htm>http://www.909shot.com/polio197.htm.
Krieg, P., Amtmann E, Jonas, D., Fischer, H., Zang, K., & Sauer G. (1981). Episomal Simian Virus 40 Genomes in Human Brain Tumors. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 78(10), 6446-6450.
Lednicky, J. A., Garcea, R. L., Bergsagel, D. J., & Butel, J. S. (1995). Natural Simian Virus 40 Strains are Present in Human choroid Plexus and Ependymoma tumors. Virology, 212(2), 710-717.
Martini, F., et al. (1995). Human Brain Tumors and Simian Virus 40. Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 87(17), 1331.
Martini, F., et al. (1996). SV-40 Early Region and Large T Antigen in Human Brain Tumors, Peripheral Blood Cells, and Sperm Fluids From Healthy Individuals. Cancer Research, 56(20), 4820-4825.
Pass, H. I., Kennedy, R. C., & Carbone, M. (1996). Evidence for and Implications of SV-40 Like Sequences in Human Mesotheliomas. Important Advances in Oncology, 89-108.
Rock, A. (1996). The Lethal Dangers of the Billion Dollar Vaccine Business. Money, December, pages 148-163.
Tognon, M., et al. (1996). Large T Antigen Coding Sequences of Two DNA Tumor Viruses, BK and SV-40, and Nonrandom Chromosome Changes in Two Glioblastoma Cell Lines. Cancer Genetics and Cytogenics, 90(1), 17-23.
In his article, “Study: Media Unintentionally Distorts Child Vaccine Risks,” David Williamson reports on some of the controversy surrounding the safety of the Diphtheria, Pertussis, and Tetanus vaccination (DPT). The debate over the safety of this vaccine cocktail has raged for decades, not just in our country but around the globe.
There’s no question that DPT vaccinations save lives; they have lowered the annual pertussis deaths from about 1000 annually to less than ten. Unfortunately, as reported by the National Vaccine Information Center (NVIC), the form of the vaccine used and sanctioned by the Centers for Disease Control also kills as many as 900 children per year, and leaves one of every 62,000 children immunized with permanent brain damage. Are those acceptable risks?
To add insult to injury, a purified vaccine is available that’s virtually reaction-free, and has been produced and used in other countries for over 15 years, using technology the U.S. abandoned in the 1970’s. The catch: it costs $9 more per injection.
While most parents would happily cough up the additional nine bucks to ensure their children’s safety, drug companies have lobbied to delay the use of the purified vaccine (acellular) for as long as possible — it might cut into their inflated 50 percent profit margins per vaccination.
Before digressing too far into the politics and economics of the public health system in this country, a brief world tour of DPT’s tainted history is in order.
By 1972, six major US pharmaceutical companies had developed a purified (acellular) form of the pertussis vaccine which was virtually reaction-free. Unfortunately, the purification process yielded less of the active component necessary to confer immunity increasing the cost of production from cents to dollars per dosage. Acellular vaccine production was abandoned. In 1977, British researcher Dr. Gordon T. Stewart, of the Department of Community Medicine at the University of Glasgow, documented adverse reactions to DPT vaccine and evaluated the benefit to risk ratio for children in the United Kingdom. His research demonstrated that 1 of every 54,000 children receiving the vaccine suffered encephalopathy (brain disfunction) with rare instances of mental retardation ensuing. Other symptoms included fits of screaming, unresponsiveness, shock, vomiting, localized paralysis, and convulsions.
Of the 160 adverse cases he examined, 40 percent demonstrated hyperkinesis (increased muscle movements accompanying brain dysfunction), infantile spasms, flaccid paralysis, and partial or complete amentia (severe mental retardation).
He determined that adverse events were severely underreported or overlooked, that no protection from the disease was demonstrable in infants, and that claims by official bodies that risks of whooping-cough exceeded those of vaccination were very questionable. He estimated the risk of transient brain damage and mental defect to occur in 1 out of every 10,000 vaccinated, and risk for permanent brain damage to occur in 1 out of every 20,000 to 60,000 vaccinated.
Sweden banned the pertussis vaccine from its vaccination program in 1979, related to concerns of safety and its questionable effectiveness. This country decided it would rather endure the disease as opposed to the vaccine. (Mr. Williamson correctly points out that the United Kingdom experienced outbreaks of pertussis during this time period, however, 100,000 cases with only 36 deaths was viewed by many as minor compared to the potential loss from mass immunizations of millions of citizens with a defective vaccine — do the math yourself — a potential for 900 deaths annually in this country alone from the vaccine.)
In 1980, German researchers, Tonz and Bajc, compared incidences of seizures caused by the pertussis vaccine in Germany with those in America. German children suffered seizures at the rate of 1 per every 4800 infants immunized while American children demonstrated a rate of 1 seizure for every 600 infants immunized.
Concerns for safety prompted Japan to replace the traditional whole-cell pertussis vaccine with the purified, acellular vaccine. By 1983, studies indicated that the efficacy of Japanese acellular vaccines was equal that of the whole-cell vaccines, and complication rates had been cut by 83 percent.
In 1984 Austrian researcher, Dr. Gerhard Wiedermann, at the Institute for Environmental Medicine at the University of Vienna, evaluated the risks versus benefits of continuing the pertussis vaccination program and concluded pertussis vaccinations should be discontinued. His research team recommended that only DT vaccinations be given, and pointed out while no deaths from the vaccine had been confirmed in their country that, “pertussis offers many ailments, sufferings, and possibilities of damage.”
That same year, Dr. Alan Hinman of the Division of Immunization at the Center for Prevention Services, along with Dr. Jeffrey Koplan of the Centers for Disease Control, produced a simulated model of 1 million children to examine the risks versus benefits of pertussis vaccine in the United States. These researchers concluded the over-all benefits outweighed the risks — but they also documented the extent of damage this vaccine can cause. One minor reaction was predicted to occur with every 2.5 doses, one case of convulsions with every 1,750 doses, one child would collapse (shock) with every 1,750 doses, one case of encephalitis would occur with every 110,000 doses with a case of permanent brain damage with every 310,000 doses. Magnify these risks five times as each child receives 5 doses to complete the immunization schedule.
In 1992, Doctors Paul Fine and Robert Chen of the Communicable Disease Epidemiological Unit in London performed a re-analysis of studies on DPT which revealed previously under-reported complications. Their analysis of the British National Childhood Encephalopathy Study lead to a four-fold increase in the estimated risk of encephalopathy associated with DPT vaccinations. The investigators added that “(research) biases that underestimate risk have received less attention (than those over-estimating risks),” and “the fact that such biases do exist makes it difficult to demonstrate convincingly that a vaccine is not responsible for rare, severe, adverse reactions.”
Dr. Kathleen Stratton and her colleagues at the Institute of Medicine reported in 1994 the Diphtheria and Tetanus (DT) portions of the DPT cocktail had been causally related to anaphylactic reactions (severe allergic reactions), Guillain-Barre Syndrome (numbness of the extremities with severe forms producing various degrees of paralysis), and brachial neuritis (inflammation of the brachial nerve). It remains inconclusive as to whether or not these portions of the vaccine cause residual seizure disorders, demyelinating diseases of the central nervous system (infections of nerve cell linings causing muscle weakness and visual disturbances), mononeuropathy (single nerve inflammation), and arthritis. As of last year, the Institute reported that no controlled clinical trials had been conducted to rule out a causal link between DPT and encephalopathy, demyelinating diseases, Guillain-Barre syndrome, and anaphylaxis!
When the major vaccine manufacturers lobbied Congress in 1986 to pass the National Childhood Vaccine Injury Act (NCVIA) to absolve them of all liability related to adverse reactions caused by their products, they obviously had plenty to worry about. With this Act, the National Vaccine Injury Fund was established by levying a user tax against citizens for immunizing their children. Since its creation the fund has compensated 579 vaccine induced deaths adjudicated through the Federal Court of Claims to the tune of $700 million dollars. Forty percent (227) of these vaccine induced deaths were originally misdiagnosed as Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS). Mind you, the American taxpayer now compensates the victims of these defective products, while the major manufacturer and supplier of DPT in the U.S., Wyeth-Lederle, watched its profits soar 300 percent since the passage of this Act. Wyeth-Lederle earned $350 million in sales of DPT last year.
Mr. Williamson’s figures on the malpractice damage suits are somewhat misleading as well. There is a great difference between filing a malpractice case and having damages awarded to the victims of medical malpractice. All told, the dollar amount associated with litigation for negligent practice totals up to only one percent, or $10 billion dollars, of the total annual healthcare tab. (This is for all malpractice litigation, and vaccine litigation is but a small portion of this amount.)
The Congressional Budget Office (CBO) confirms these figures which include all malpractice settlements, all malpractice insurance premiums, all legal fees, and all court costs. Furthermore, the Harvard Medical Practice Study revealed that of the one percent of patients estimated to be injured as a result of negligence only one-eighth ever discovered they were victimized and filed suit, and only one-sixteenth of those filing suits ever recovered any monetary damages. The damage awards themselves have been on a steady decline over the past ten years, and out of court settlements plummeted from an average of $2 million in 1993 to $1 million in 1994. Jury awards have decreased even further to an average of $500,000 per case.
It is probably correct that some 250 lawsuits were being brought against the manufacturers of vaccines by 1986 prior to the legislative relief granted to these companies. Problem is, there most probably should have been more — many more.
Most people don’t realize when they have been victimized by negligent practice or by defective products. Very few file suit, and when the cause of many of these deaths and disabilities are misdiagnosed it becomes very easy for this industry to write off its adverse reactions by saying they just happen to be a coincidence of normal childhood neurological disorders.
As pointed out earlier, 40 percent of the victims compensated after passage of the NCVIA had been misdiagnosed originally. This figure is consistent with many studies by pathologists documenting rates of misdiagnosis at 35 to 40 percent as to the cause of death in all range of ailments. An increase in autopsies appears to be indicated if one is to discount or subscribe to the coincidence theory.
While some argue the damage caused by these vaccines is rare, and over just how many have suffered these negative side-effects, it is clear that many adverse reactions go unreported, over-looked, or misdiagnosed.
(In one 20 month period alone, the National Vaccine Information Center documented 54,000 adverse vaccine reactions which included 700 deaths. Dr. David Kessler, now retiring commissioner of the FDA added that only 1 of every 10 adverse events associated with vaccines are reported.)
I personally can’t image too many crimes worse than destroying the life of a child with a product which is known to have negative side effects when there is a safer product available but simply not being pursued because there is not enough profit motive in it for the manufacturer — this is public health, not toasters which are being sold!
In 1996, the CDC approved using the acellular (purified form) of the DPT vaccine for use in 15 month-old children in the U.S., and it is now being evaluated in controlled trials. It is interesting to note that up until 1995, five of the nine representatives of the Centers for Disease Control Immunization Advisory Panel had financial ties to the industry. The Chairman, Dr. James Cherry, acknowledged the risks of severe brain damage and death from the DPT vaccinations in 1979, but by 1990 he had done an about face and declared these known dangers as being “myths.” Between the years 1980 through 1992, Dr. Cherry had received over a million dollars in unrestricted DPT research grants from Lederle — DPT’s largest manufacturer.
Some twenty-four years after the development of the purified vaccine, with the U.S. pursuing it once again, all that remains are the questions of the discarded victims and the fears of parents who must chose whether or not to immunize their children.
Aoyama, T., Murase, Y., Kato, T. & Iwata, T. (1985). Efficacy of an Acellular Pertussis Vaccine in Japan. Journal of Pediatrics, 107(2), 180- 183.
Fine, P. E. & Chen, R. T. (1992). Confounding in Studies of Adverse Reactions to Vaccines. American Journal of Epidemiology, 136(2), 121-135.
Hallander, G. L. , Olin. P., & Storsaeter, R. E. (1996). A Controlled Trial of a Two-component Acellular, a Five-Component Acellular, and a Whole-Cell pertussis Vaccine. New England Journal of Medicine, 334(6), 391-392.
Hinman, A. R. & Koplan, J. P. (1984). Pertussis and Pertussis Vaccine. Journal of the American Medical Association, 251(23), 3109- 3113.
Rock, A. (1996). The Lethal Dangers of the Billion Dollar Vaccine Business. Money, December, pps. 148-164.
Stewart, G. T. (1977). Vaccination Against Whooping-Cough: Efficacy Versus Risks. The Lancet, 8005, 234-237, January 29.
Stratton, K.. , Howe, C. J., & Johnston, R. B. (1994). Adverse Events Associated with Childhood Vaccines Other Than Pertussis and Rubella. Journal of the American Medical Association, 271(20), 1602-1605.
Tonz, O. & Bajc, S. (1980). Zerebrale Krampfanfalle Nach Pertussis-Impfung. Schweizerische Medizinische Wochenschrift, 110(51) 1965-71. (English translation included)
Wiedermann, G., Ambrosch, F., Kollaritsch, H. & Kundi, M. (1984). Risks and Benefits of Vaccinations. Infection Control, 5(9), 438-444.
My bio for the Albion Monitor:
Harold Stearley, R.N., B.S.N., A.S.B., CCRN, has held various clinical and supervisory positions over his two-decade career. His articles on “managed care” and the crisis in nursing have appeared in many nursing journals, and he was the author of “Nursing on the Edge,” a multi-part series which appeared in the Monitor last year.